Tshiwo tsha lushaka

From Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Tshiwo tsha lushaka (Pandemic, u bva kha Tshigiriki pan, ‘zwothe’ na demos, ‘vhathu’) hu tou vha u bvelela ha vhulwadze ha pfuko hune ho “swika” kha mashango a fhiraho lithihi. Luvhilo lune vhulwadze ha phadalala ngawo kha  vhathu kana kha vundu nga tshifhinga tshituku zwi vhidzwa upfi tshiwo tsha vundu (Ephidemiki).[1] vhulwadze vhu phadalalaho nga mbalo i divheyaho ya vhathu vho kavhiwaho ndi “endemiki”, hu si phandemiki. U phadalala ha vhulwadze ha pfuko nga nomboro nkene sa duda la no vha hone nga u shanduka ha khalanwaha zwi anzelwa u thudzelwa kule sa izwi u tshi vha hone kha mavundu a tshi vhalo nga u tevhekana.

Thalutshedzo na zwitenwa[edit | edit source]

Tshiwo tsha lushaka ndi tshiwo tsha vundu(ephidemiki) tshi velelaho nga ndila ine ya pfukhela na mashango a nnda.[2] Vhulwadze kana tshiimo tsha vhulwadze asi tshiwo tsha lushaka nga nthani ha u phadalala kana nga mabulayo o vhangwaho nga vhulwadze uvhu; vhu tea u vha vhulwadze hu pfukhelaho. Sa tsumbo, khentsa ndi vhulwadze ho dzhiaho malwadze a vhathu vhanzhi fhedzi a si tshiwo tsha lushaka nga uri asi vhulwadze vhu pfukhelaho.[3]

Luvhilo lwa u pfukhelana ha tshiwo tsha vundu(zwi fhedzaho zwi tshi vha tshiwo tsha lushaka ) zwi tevhedzela khebve ingaho bele I tshi oliwa kha girafu I sumbedzaho nombor ya vhathu vho kavhiwaho zwi tshi badekanwa na tshifhinga. Khebve ya tshiwo tsha lushaka asi tshifhinga tshothe ya tevhedzela khebve yo doweleaho musi tshiwo tsha vundu tshi tshi phadalala. Vhulwadze ha pfuko vhu phadalala nga zwitenwa zwiraru zwo sumbedzwaho kha girafu I tevhelaho.

U langa[edit | edit source]

Huna maga manzhi ane muvhuso unga ita u langa tshiwo tsha lushaka. Nga nwaha wa 2005 vha World Health Organisation vho do shumisana na vha International Health Regulation sa vho ramilayo vha no shumana na u thivhela, u langa na u thogomela khombo kha mutakalo wa vhadzulapo ine inga phadalala nga mashango.[4] hafhu, vha World Health Organisation vho da na kushumele ku sedzana na tshiwo tsha lushaka tshi daho nga duda. Manyuwala wo bveledzwa lwa u tou thoma nga nwaha wa 1999 wa sedzuluswa wa lugiswa fhala na fhala nga nwaha wa 2005 na 2009.[5] [vii] Maga o shumiswaho ulwa na tshiwo tsha lushaka Covid-19 o wanala kha vha International Health Regulations 2005 na kha World Health Organisation kha gaidilani ya u di lugisa ulwa na duda la tshiwo tsha lushaka.

Hovha na u saukanya hu lapfu kha 3T's (u linga, u alafha, u tola) zwine zwa tendela mashango uri a kone u wanulusa kana u divha mivhigo nga tshihadu hu saathu swika tshifhinga tsha u di fhandekana na u onga.[6] Maitele aya a katela u toda vhathu vhothe vhe vha vha na vhukwamani na muthu o kavhiwaho, vha vha fhandekana na lushaka. Maitele haya o sumbedza u fhulufhedzea zwi tshi bva kha u shumiswa fhethu ho nonga South Korea na Singapore, fhedzi haya mashango o sumbedzisa u vha a khwine kha u di lugisela nga murahu ha u lwa na SARS.

U di fhandekana na tshi tshavha, nga u sa di badekana na vhathu, ndi maitele a shumiswaho nga vha zwa mutakalo zwi tshi itelwa u fhungudza u pfukhelalana ha vhulwadze nga u thivhela vhathu vha sa kwamane na vhanwe u fhungudza u pfukhiselana ha vhulwadze. Mudzula tshidulo muhulwane vho Dr Michael J Ryan vha u bva kha World Health Organisation vhari, kha u tsivhudza lushaka nga Thafamuhwe 2019 vhari “u di fhandekana na lushaka ndi maga a tshifhinga tshituku u fhungudza u phadalala ha tshitzhili, fhedzi asi u fhelisa tshitzhili. Zwi a vhidza, na hafhu zwi tea u tanganya na manwe maga u tandulula thaidzo.”[7] Vho Dr Ryan vho khwathisedza uri u di fhandekana a zwi nga fhedzi vhulwadze.

Zwiwo zwa lushaka zwire hone[edit | edit source]

HIV/AIDS[edit | edit source]

Naho vha WHO vho shumisa ipfi ‘tshiwo tsha lifhasi’ u talusa HIV,[8] ndi tshiwo tsha lushaka ri tshi lavhelesa thalutshedzo. U bva nga 2018, mbalo ya vho kavhiwaho nga tshitzhili tsha HIV lifhasi nga vhuphara I hanefho kha 37,9 million.[9] Ha lovha vhathu vha linganaho 770,000 vho vhulawa nga AIDS nga 2018.[10] Sub-saharan Africa ndi shango lo kwameaho nga maanda. Nga 2018, nga u tou humbulela 61% ya vhathu vhaswa vho kavhiwaho nga HIV ndi vha shango lo bulwaho [11]

Zwitzhili Zwa Corona[edit | edit source]

Zwitzhili zwa Corona (Cov) ndi lushaka luhulwane lwa zwitzhili zwi vhangaho vhulwadze u bva kha duda li vhangwaho nga murotholo u swika kha vhulwadze vhungaho sa Middle East Respiratory Syndrome ( MERS-CoV) na Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). Tshi tzhili tshi swa tsha corona (SARS-CoV-2) tsho vhanga vhulwadze ha coronavirus 2019, kana COVID-19.[12] Zwinwe zwa zwitzhili zwa corona zwi zoonotic, zwi tshi tou amba uri ndi vhulwadze vhu pfukhelaho vhukati ha zwipuka na vhathu. Thodisiso dzo itwaho dzi sumbedza uri SARS-CoV vho pfukhela u sthi bva kha zwikadzi zwa civet uya kha vhathu, na MERS-CoV u bva kha dzi gamela uya kha vhathu. Zwitzhili zwo vhalaho zwa corona zwi kha divha kha zwipuka, a zwathu u pfukhela kha vhathu.

Tshitzhili tshiswa tsha corona tshe tsha thoma u wanala Wuhan, kha vundu la Hubei, China, mafheleloni a 2019 Nyendavhusiku,[13] tsho disa mivhigo miswa ya vhulwadze ha u balelwa u fema, une wa divhea sa vhulwadze ha coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Uya nga vha Yunivesithi ya John Hopkins[14], mashango a swikaho 200 o kwamea nga COVID-19, na u bvelela hu shushaho ngei United states, central china, western Europe, na Iran. Nga 11 Thafamuhwe 2020, vha World Health Organisation vho divhadza u phadalala ha COVID-19 sa tshiwo tsha lushaka. U bva nga 23 Lambamai 2020, nomboro ya vhathu vho kavhiwaho nga COVID-19 yo swika kha 2.63 million lifhasi nga vhuphara, vhathu vho lovhaho vho vha 184,249 na nomboro ya vhalwadze vho fholaho ndi 722,055.

U bvelela ho thogomeliwaho[edit | edit source]

Dali[edit | edit source]

Dali ndi vhulwadze ho dalaho kha dzi rigini dza thirophikhala, zwi tshi katela na zwipida zwa America, Asia na Afurika. Nwaha munwe na munwe, hu vha na mivhigo ya dali I swikaho kha 350-500 million. U sa shuma ha mushonga zwovha thaidzo I aluwaho kha u alafha vhulwadze ha dali kha 21 sentshuari, sa izwo u sa shuma ha mushonga zwo dowelea kha u lwisana na dali, nga nndani kha artemisinins.[15]

Vhulwadze ha dali ho vha hu vhulwadze ho doweleaho Europe na North America, lune zwino a u tsha wanalea.[16] Vhulwadze vha dali u ngavha wo dzhenisa tshanda kha u wisa Roman Empire.[17] Vhulwadze uvhu vho swika hune ha divhea sa “duda la Rome”.[18] Plasmodium falciparum wo vha khombo kha vha kholonisi na vhathu vha kale u fana na musi u tshi divhazwa America khathihi na u renga dziphuli.

Fuluu ya Sipeini[edit | edit source]

Fuluu ya Sipeini (1918-1920) yo kavha vhathu vha 500 million u mona na lifhasi.[19] zwi tshikatela na vhathu vhare kha zwi tangadzime na kha Arctic, ya vhulaya vhathu vha 20 u swika kha 100 million. Malwadze manzhi a duda a vha khombo kha vhana vhatuku na vha aluwa vhahulwane, hu tshi tshila vhare kha minwaha ya vhukati. Fhedzi fuluu ya Sipeini yo da ya vhulaesa thanga thukhu. [xxx] Fuluu ya Sipeini yo vhulaesa vhathu u fhira nndwa ya u thoma ya lifhasi ya dovha ya vhulaya vhathu vhanzhi nga dzi vhege dza 25 u fhira AIDS I tshi vhulaya vhathu kha minwaha ya u thoma ya 25. Guvhangano la masole na u tshimbila-tshimbila nga tshifhinga tsha nndwa ya u thoma ya lifhasi zwo ita uri vhu phadalale na u shanduka nga luvhilo, na u engedza mbalo ya masole are na fuluu ya Sipeini zwo engedzezwa na nga mutsiko wa muhumbulo, u sa la zwiliwa zwa fushi na u thaselwa nga dzi khemikhali. Uvha na zwiendedzi zwo leludza u kha u phadalala ha vhulwadze.

Mbilaelo nga ha zwitzhili zwa matshelo[edit | edit source]

U sa shuma ha mishonga[edit | edit source]

U sa shuma ha mushonga kanzhi vha zwi vhidza uri ndi dzi “superbugs”. Zwi a shela mulenzhe kha u vuwa ha vhulwadze vhune vha langulea zwavhudi. Sa tsumbo, mivhigo ya vhulwadze ha TB ine mushonga wa sa I lange I di dzula u vha thaidzo kha vha zwa mutakalo. U swika hanefho kha 500 000 mivhigo miswa iya vhigwa ya multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) u mona na lifhasi nga nwaha. China na India vha na mivhigo ya nntha ya multidrug-resistance TB. [xxxvii] Vha World Health Organisation (WHO) vha nea muvhigo wa uri kha vhathu vha 50 million lifhasi nga vhuphara vha kavhiwa nga MDR-TB, 79% ya muvhigo uyo hu tshi vha na u sa shuma ha mishonga. Nga 2005, mivhigo ya 124 ya MDR-TB yo vhigiwa America. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) yo divhadzwa Afurika nga 2006, zwa wanuluswa uri I kha mashango a 49, zwi tshi katela na Amerika. Huna 40 000 ha mivhigo miswa ya XDR-TB nga nwaha, vha WHO vha tshi humbulela.

Kha minwaha ya 20 yo fhiraho, bakhitheria I katelaho staphylococcus aureus, serratia marcescens na Enterococcus, dzo do sa tendela mushonga I tshi shuma khayo, unga na mushonga u lwaho na dzi bakhitheria wa vancomycin, na minwe mishonga I lwaho na dzi bakhitheria ya nonga sa aminoglycosides na cephalosporins. Antibiotic resistance organisms dzo no vha dza vhuthogwa kha vha zwa healthcare-associated (nosocomial) infections (HAI). Nga u dadzisa, u kavhiwa ho vhangiwaho nga metchicillin-resitant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) kha vhathu vhare na mutakalo wa vhudi zwo no tou vha dzema kha minwaha ya zwino.

Viral hemorrhagic fevers[edit | edit source]

Viral hemorrhagic fevers ndi vhulwadze ha khombo vhu pfukhelaho nga luvhilo. Tsumbo dzi katela Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, Rift valley fever, Marburg virus disease na Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. Viral hemorrhagic fevers ndi vhulwadze vhu ne vhu nga kona u vha tshiwo tsha lushaka. [xxxix] Maanda a uri vhu phadalale nga luvhilo uri vhu vhe tshiwo tsha lushaka zwo fhungudzea vhunga vhu tshi phadalala nga musi hu na u kwamana na munwe muthu lwa tsini, na muthu o kavhiwaho una tshifinga tshipfufhi tsha u lovha kana u lwala lu shushaho. Tshifhinga ndi tshipfufhi vhukati ha uri muthu o kavhiwaho uri a pfukhisele vhulwadze nga uri tsumba dwadze ndi zwone zwiitaho madoketala vha tavhanye u fhandekana muthu are na vhulwadze, zwa thivhela u pfukhisela vhulwadze hunwe.

Tshitzhili tsha Zika[edit | edit source]

Athikili ya vhukuma: 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic, Zika virus and Zika fever U bvelela ha tshitzhili tsha Zika zwo thoma nga 2015 zwa hulela zwitshiya mathomoni a 2016, hu na mbalo ya u swika 1.5 million ya mivhigo yo khwathisedzwaho kha shango la America. Vha World Health Organisation vho tsivhudza nga ha Zika uri I na maanda a u vha tshiwo tsha lifhasi kharali vha balelwa u langa vhulwadze.

U khwathisedza vhutanzi[edit | edit source]

  1. "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". Wikipedia (in English). 2020-06-30. 
  2. A dictionary of epidemiology.. Porta, Miquel S., International Epidemiological Association. (5th ed. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-933893-1. OCLC 610974909. 
  3. Dumar, A. M. (2009). Swine flu : what you need to know. [Place of publication not identified]: Brownstone Books. ISBN 1-4344-5832-6. OCLC 401165992. 
  4. "WHO | International Health Regulations (2005)". WHO. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  5. "WHO | International Health Regulations (2005)". WHO. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  6. "The 3 T’s model: Hitting the nail on the head". Jordan Times (in English). 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  7. Inc, Twitter. "Reuters Top News @Reuters". Periscope. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  8. "WHO | Data and statistics". WHO. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  9. Horton, Richard (2019-07). "Offline: Who should lead UNAIDS?". The Lancet 394 (10192): 12. ISSN 0140-6736. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(19)31563-6. 
  10. Knowledge is Power. 2019-02-06. doi:10.18356/c54bbf5f-en. 
  11. Steele, Russell W. (2016-03-21). "Zika Virus". Clinical Pediatrics 55 (8): 698–700. ISSN 0009-9228. doi:10.1177/0009922816638660. 
  12. "ABC News/Washington Post Poll of Public Opinion on Aging, March 1982". ICPSR Data Holdings. 1984-03-18. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  13. "Boyle, Sir Edward, (12 June 1878–31 March 1945)". Who Was Who (Oxford University Press). 2007-12-01. 
  14. JOAO, BELMIRO N (2020-03-03). "Geographic Information Systems and COVID-19: The Johns Hopkins University Dashboard". dx.doi.org. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  15. "CDC - Malaria - Page Not Found". web.archive.org. 2012-12-29. Retrieved 2020-07-04. 
  16. Gratz, Norman G. "Tick-borne diseases of Europe". The vector- and rodent-borne diseases of Europe and North America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 89–148. ISBN 978-0-511-54189-6. 
  17. Bower, Bruce (2001-10-20). "Lemurs Reveal Clues to Ancient Asian Roots". Science News 160 (16): 245. ISSN 0036-8423. doi:10.2307/4012974. 
  18. Sallares, Robert (2002-09-05). Malaria and Rome. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-924850-6. 
  19. Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Morens, David M. (2006-01). "Influenza Revisited". Emerging Infectious Diseases 12 (1): 1–2. ISSN 1080-6040. doi:10.3201/eid1201.051442.